Other web sites

The web site of Nicolas (in French)

This very complete web site describes the various protocols of Internet transmission. For each protocol, there are example programs, in particular in C to use them.
It is on this web site that I found information necessary to start the writing of my mailer.
Moreover, this web site is pretty!

MIME what is it ?

Translation in French of the standards currently in force for the sending of electronic mail.


One of the multiple bonds in anglo american version:


Multilingual translators online that I use

French to English : Google

I started using the Google translator from 2008.


After a good first impression, Google has often disappointed me. In theory, Google can translate more than fifty languages between each other. In practice to get there, it uses the English language as an intermediate language.
Given the large number of homonyms in the English language, words that could be directly translated unambiguously between two other languages are replaced by something else when returning from the English language (eg the word "race" can be used for people running together or for a ethnic group of people, and animals become all males).
Such as French, Spanish, Portuguese and Italian use the same sentence structure, the translations between these 4 languages could be word for word. But using the English, Google changes the order of words in sentences (sometimes with errors changing the meaning), and when returning to a Latin language, the words are not always put again in the initial order.
Sometimes google skips sentences or parts of sentences from the original text without a translation or replace an affirmation by a negation or the contrary. In addition, the same words will not always be translated the same according sentences (which is a major inconvenient to translate a technical text).
However, to translate from French into or from English, or from less common languages such as Scandinavian languages, Google stays my less bad current choice.

From French to Spanish and Portuguese and to Esperanto : Apertium

From 2008, I also started using Apertium.


Apertium is a free software that first permitted to translate mainly to or from Spanish and Catalan.
I use Apertium for my translations from French into Spanish, Portuguese and Esperanto.
In 2008, the vocabulary of Apertium between Spanish ans Portuguese and Esperanto was too limited. Since then, progress has been made and it is also possible to translate directly from French to Esperanto with an excellent vocabulary coverage.


In addition, Apertium can display the untranslated words preceded of a * that permits to submit them to another online translator.

After starting to use online versions of Apertium, I translated to French a large part of their wiki (about 130 pages) that permitted me to understand how this software works, then to contribute to language pairs. Presently, I rather user downloaded versions of Apertium which are newer than online versions and can work on a computer without internet.

For other European languages : Systran

Until 2007, I used that online translator for most of my translations.


Systran allow the direct translation of German, English, Spanish, Italian, Greek, Dutch and Portuguese from and to French.
The problem is that since the mid-2007, like many other online translators who are the windows of commercial products, it does translate as small text, which makes the translation of a document much more tedious than with Google and Apertium. Fault of better, I still use it for my translation into German, Italian and Dutch, and to verify or supplement the result of other online translations.

Another translator for Esperanto : Traduku

To translate from English to Esperanto or the other way for a long time only this online translator existed :


The analysis of grammatical sentences is rudimentary, and some words in Esperanto are without their suffix, it is precisely the suffix that distinguishes the verbs in different tenses, names in the singular or plural, and adjectives. Forget the end of words is losing a lot of interest in Esperanto.
Currently, the Esperanto translations performed by Apertium are really better quality.

How to write man pages

This document describes the organization of the man pages, the format of text to respect to write some, and some commands useful to visualize pages of man not yet installed.
A good background document which makes however the dead end on the problems of compatibility of the accentuated characters enter machines ISO-8859-15 and machines UTF-8 .
This documentation is diffused in several languages.


Local copy of the page

Cyloop: my other free software

Cyloop is a free software derived from RRDtool. As it, it allows to save data at regular intervals, and then represent them graphically.
But RRDtool works on a basis of linear time while Cyloop works on a cyclic time period (day, week, month, year, or any other period of time chosen by the user).
When a cycle ends, the new cycle data add to previous for each of the "moments" of the cycle. The graphic generated is the average change of one or more values during the cycle.
It is possible to do a weight calculation of so that the most recent cycles get more importance in the final result.


My other websites

The songs I wrote, under a free license of course (in French only).


My general website (in French only).